Electricity labeling - Yes Energy

Environmental
Impacts

Electricity labeling

ELECTRIC ENERGY LABELING

Energy Sources - Annual Information
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Energy Source Mix - Qquarterly Evolution

NOTA: mix calculado conforme Diretiva ERSE nº16/2018.

Specific Emissions 2020

CO2 (Valor Anual: 303.668)

A commitment to the environment

Portugal currently occupies a leading position at European level, with the highest percentage of green energy from renewable sources consumed in our homes and companies, compared to the total electricity consumed. Climate change is one of the biggest challenges facing humanity today. The use of fossil fuels has led to a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which have accelerated the global warming effect. The energy sector is called upon to respond to this challenge, to play a fundamental role in the fight against climate change, as the energy production technologies it uses have an important influence on greenhouse gas emissions . The main alternatives to face this climate change are the promotion of renewable energies and the use of thermal production of fossil fuels with lower carbon content, as well as the improvement of efficiency in emissions, transport and in the final use of energy. Enforcesco is associated with this challenge, in the strong bet it makes through companies of the Enforce Group, in renewable energies, with a strong focus and specialization in photovoltaics.

Using electricity more efficiently

It is essential to know the environmental impacts associated with the production of electricity and to change behavior in order to use electricity more efficiently.

Issuing power source categories

For the assessment of environmental impacts generated by the production of thermal energy, which includes fossil cogeneration, through the burning of fossil fuels, namely: natural gas, coal, diesel and fuel, the phases of operation, extraction must also be analyzed , transport and refining of fossil fuels, in which significant impacts occur, among others, the high release of polluting gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx), together with particles in suspension and heavy metals, which densify the greenhouse effect with impact on global warming, the appearance of acid rain, soil degradation, coastal zones and marine ecosystems, extinction of existing reserves, visual intrusion and noise.

As for solid urban waste (MSW), the main impacts are associated with the collection and transportation of waste to which atmospheric emissions and noise related to transport vehicles correspond. The incineration of MSW generates CO2 emissions, also contributing to climate change, in which the emissions resulting from the combustion process produced are generally higher than in the case of fossil fuels, given the low calorific value of the MSW and the low generation efficiency.

Nuclear: the reference to this form of electricity production is due to the fact, for the purposes of calculating the base production of the Portuguese electricity system, to consider the import balance in the interconnection coming from Spain, in which the base production mix of the Spanish electrical system that may include electrical production of nuclear origin.

The nuclear energy operation phase has some very significant environmental impacts, namely, thermal and radioactive pollution from cooling waters, loss of biodiversity caused by radioactive emissions, soil degradation due to the extraction of nuclear fuels, the production of radioactive waste and production infrastructures that generate visual impacts.

Renewable electric energy source categories

Wind: the environmental impacts associated with the production of wind energy are, in general, small and localized, the main ones being noise, visual intrusion and changes in ecosystems, in particular, in the avifauna.

Water: the environmental impacts of run-of-river uses (with no storage capacity for affluent flows) are of a lower magnitude than large hydroelectric plants (with reservoir). In both types of use, there may or may not be a diversion of the river flow to be turbinated, constituting an important landscape intrusion. Large hydroelectric plants generate significant environmental impacts, although localized, can cause significant disturbances in ecological systems upstream and downstream.

Renewable cogeneration: this type of simultaneous production of electrical and thermal energy more efficiently (use of a renewable fuel source) when compared to the energy production system with conventional cogeneration, results in a significant decrease in the associated environmental impacts, mainly in reducing pollutant gas emissions, in particular CO2, which contributes the most to the greenhouse effect.

Geothermal: the environmental impacts of geothermal energy are dependent on the location of the installation and the technology used. However, the main impacts are associated with solid waste, thermal or chemical pollution of surface / groundwater, noise, increased seismicity. These impacts are minimal when compared to the impacts of conventional technologies for the production of thermoelectric energy.

Other renewable: includes the production of electric energy based on renewable energy sources such as:

• Solar: photovoltaic systems generate few environmental impacts, allowing the use of a renewable resource to produce electricity without generating atmospheric emissions. However, there are some associated negative impacts, the visual ones, mainly resulting from the occupation of relatively extensive areas, and the process and materials involved in the production of photovoltaic cells and their dismantling.

• Biomass: The use of uncultivated vegetation can produce significant impacts, as the exploration is carried out. In many cases, there is a total destruction of vegetation, with significant ecological impacts on the terrestrial ecosystem.

• Biogas: since incineration is a technology whose main objective is the treatment of waste, its energy recovery can be seen as a “by-product” (use of biogas in landfills). Thus, environmental impacts must not be exclusively related to the production of electricity, but must also be attributed to the waste treatment activity.

• Waves and tidal waves: this form of electric energy production has visual environmental impacts and changes in the environment, particularly in the landscape and habitats, due to the location of offshore and onshore plants, changes in coastal erosion processes and marine ecosystems.

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